Home » Antibiotics, Big Medicine, Big Pharma, Future of Medicine, Medical Maiming

Gut Biota Never Recover from Antibiotic Use – Extends to Future Generations

Submitted by on September 4, 2011 – 9:10 am24 Comments

Blood letting. Mercury. Lead based products. GMOs. The absolute horrors of common practices aren’t fully realized until decades later; sometimes centuries.

Antibiotic use, it turns out, does more damage than just leading to drug resistant diseases. We may never fully recover from the gut damage. There are already mass problems with food assimilation and breathing difficulties continually on the rise.

Worse still, the damage is passed on to the unborn. Flora lost by mothers is lost to their babies which is likely a major cause of the chronic disease spike in children.

Find out more about the mass use of antibiotics and the correlating cost of our health with their continued use. Iatrogenic disease – those caused by medical errors – are the third leading cause of death in America. That does not include the problems caused by antibiotic use – problems we may not fully realize for years to come.

Since many have reversed chronic disease with diet and lifestyle changess, there is always hope!

~Health Freedoms

Gut Biota Never Recover from Antibiotic Use: Loss Extends to Future Generations

Evidence shows the mass antibiotics experiment is devastating our children’s health. It may be the reason so many struggle for breath and can’t assimilate food properly.

Emerging research shows that the harmful effects of antibiotics go much further than the development of drug resistant diseases. The beneficial bacteria lost to antibiotics, along with disease-inducing bacteria, do not recover fully. Worse, flora lost by a mother is also lost to her babies. The missing beneficial gut bacteria are likely a major factor behind much of the chronic disease experienced today. The continuous use of antibiotics is resulting in each generation experiencing worse health than their parents.

Martin Blaser, the author of a report in the prestigious journalNature writes:

Antibiotics kill the bacteria we do want, as well as those we don’t. These long-term changes to the beneficial bacteria within people’s bodies may even increase our susceptibility to infections and disease.

Overuse of antibiotics could be fuelling the dramatic increase in conditions such as obesity, type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies and asthma, which have more than doubled in many populations.

Aside from the development of superbugs, we’re now seeing clear documentation that the overall long term effects of antibiotics are devastatingly harmful to our health. Speaking to ABC News, Blaser said:

Antibiotics are miraculous. They’ve changed health and medicine over the last 70 years. But when doctors prescribe antibiotics, it is based on the belief that there are no long-term effects. We’ve seen evidence that suggests antibiotics may permanently change the beneficial bacteria that we’re carrying. [Emphasis my own.]

Notice that term, permanent. Without considering the potential risks in the casual use of antibiotics, it now looks like conventional medicine is creating several pandemics of some of the worst chronic diseases known.

Mass Use of Antibiotics

By the time a child reaches age 18 in the industrialized world, the chances are he or she has been given 10-20 courses of antibiotics. That misuse continues into adulthood, and they’re casually prescribed to pregnant women.

That’s where the situation grows ever worse. Part of a normal childbirth is a baby’s passage through the birth canal—where it’s exposed to its first dose of beneficial bacteria. (This should give pause to anyone considering a caesarian birth that isn’t absolutely necessary.)

When a mother’s microbiota is deficient, her child is born to a deficiency. The evidence now appears to show that, once a probiotic deficiency exists, it is never recovered—and it’s passed down the generations. Therefore, each generation is likely to suffer from poorer health than the parents enjoyed.

Costs of Antibiotic-Induced Chronic Conditions

Healthcare costs rise and rise in treating this chronic ill health. Consider the pandemic status of diabetes and asthma in children today. Those diseases were extremely rare 50 years ago, and now they’re literally routine. Yet, the focus continues to be on treatment—which increasingly lines the pockets of Big Pharma and doctors.

The search for cause has practically been ignored, even in the face of rising rates of chronic illness. Instead, treatment is the touchstone. Ever more toxic methods of suppressing symptoms, while hiding adverse effects, are researched and pushed on conventional medicine’s victims.

Two of the most critical functions in health are drastically compromised in enormous numbers of today’s children.The ability to metabolize food and the ability to breathe are being stolen from this generation. Yet the treatment they’re receiving for this poor health does nothing to make them well. It only masks the symptoms and makes theirchildren even sicker!

On top of those losses, children suffer from allergies, their bodies’ inability to distinguish between disease-inducing agents and harmless substances. They suffer from autoimmune disorders, their bodies’ inability to distinguish between foreign substances and parts of their own bodies.

Has there ever been a generation of children whose inherent health has been so devastated by the very medical system that is supposedly responsible for their health?

Iatrogenic Disease

Iatrogenic disorders are health problems caused by medical errors. They are now officially the third-leading cause of death in the United States. But those numbers do not include early deaths from diabetes, asthma, allergies, chronic bowel disorders, or cancer—all of which have been documented as results of antibiotic use—nor are the miseries suffered by the people burdened with them reckoned in the iatrogenic toll.

If we were to add all those early deaths to the iatrogenesis numbers, as should be done, it would be obvious that conventional medicine is the greatest killer and thief of health the world has ever known. And apparently, one of the most significant causes of iatrogenic illness is antibiotics, that most common of treatments handed out like candy.


By Heidi Stevenson




Painting by talented artist and homeopath,
Gina Tyler.


Related posts:

  1. Antibiotic Resistance Racing Downriver The South Platte River system begins in pristine Rocky...
  2. A Dose of ‘Good’ Bacteria Could Help Your Sinus Problems Some chronic sinus problems may be caused by a...
  3. Scientists: Overuse of Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture Endangers Humans Former FDA commissioner is among 150 scientists and 50...
  4. New Research Suggests Humans Can Sense Future Events Without Any Known Clues Wouldn’t it be nice to predict future events, even...

Related posts brought to you by Yet Another Related Posts Plugin.


  • Chezron says:

    So when IS it appropriate to use antibiotics? They are necessary at times. Thought-provoking article with no guidance on how present practices should be altered, and no guidance on how individuals should respond when their doctor wants to prescribe an antibiotic.

  • Natural Lifestyle Fan says:

    To restore good colon flora after antibiotics, I had always heard that the lactobacilli in yogurt (with “living cultures” on label), and acidophilus capsules (brand contents vary in type and quantity of strains)can restore the colon’s beneficial bacteria, essential to digesting our food (an evolutionary beneficial symbiosis), to making vitamin B1 (thiamine)that gives us energy, and to conquering competing colon yeast, and so prevent candidiasis that causes chronic fatigue.

    But if these few strains of lactobacilli in yogurt are not enough to fully replace all our pre-antibiotic natural colon beneficial bacteria, the solution would be: find a human who has never had antibiotics (nor his parents or grandparents)–for example, an Australian aborigine? And a medical manufactory lab can take a sample from such person’s colon, and from it in the lab isolate, breed, and culture the full human-natural complement and complex of desired and needed human colon good bacteria–for mass encapsuling and sale to mass human populations.

    To be given to all persons who (or their parents and/or grandparents)have had antibiotics. Ideal fix, yes?

    Go to it, all you bacteriologically savvy health-product entrepreneurs!


  • Miranda Paymer says:

    I strongly recommend reading British MD Natasha Campbell-McBride’s book, Gut and Psychology Syndrome (check out http://www.gapsdiet.com). She addresses the imbalance in gut microbes she’s seen in her practice and created a diet that over time will re-establish a more healthful gut microbe environment. People who have adhered to the diet have had great success in reducing or eliminating autism, ADD/AAHD, bi-polar, schizophrenia, depression, dyslexia, dyspraxia and more.
    The diet is a variation on a Paleolithic diet and requires abstinence from all grains and all starchy carbs, large daily doses of probiotics and homemade broth (get out your crock pot – making broth is incredibly easy to do). Eating the foods prohibited by the diet feed the bad microbes in the gut which make people crave the foods that feed those microbes and those microbes throw off toxins that create a host of physical, mental and emotional health problems.
    My husband and I have had personal experience with this diet. My husband has had multiple “mild” closed head injuries and is disabled from his post-concussion syndrome. Last fall (2010) he was so foggy brained and unstable on his feet, he could do virtually nothing but sit in front of the TV. He was having daily cataplectic “seizures” (one of many different technically called pseudoseizures that he was subject to). We started a partial version of the diet due to digestive problems he was having. All he ate for 3 weeks was homemade broth (egg drop soup with greens in it) and fruit. He became more clear headed and physically stable. At the end of the 3 weeks, he said he wanted more bulk added. I sprouted and cooked brown rice and began to add it to his broth. By the second day, he was foggy brain and unstable again on his feet. It was at this time that I came across Dr. Campbell-McBride’s book.
    We then instituted the most liberal form of the diet. Despite not going through the clearing process recommended for severe cases, in the 11 months that my husband has been on this diet he’s lost 40 pounds he needed to lose, he’s been mentally clear again, and most impressively, he has not had a SINGLE seizure in that time. From daily seizures to none for months is beyond impressive. He says he’s on this diet for life now.
    For anyone pregnant or wanting to be pregnant, get this book NOW! I realize that both of my grown daughters have health problems that were caused by my own gut microbe insufficiency and particularly affected is my youngest who was a necessary C-section.
    And no, I’m not getting kick-backs for recommending the book. I’ve been studying nutrition and alternative healing for over 40 years and this is perhaps THE most important book I’ve read.

  • Miranda Paymer says:

    I don’t know scientifically what timing would be appropriate, but when you have to take antibiotics, take massive doses of probiotics. My guess would be to take probiotics in between doses of antibiotics because a lot of the “pros” will be killed by the “antis;” you want the timing to allow the maximum survival of the probiotics. Then when you’re done with the course of antibiotics, medication, keep taking massive doses of probiotics for months and don’t feed the “bad guys.”
    There’s been some interesting recent research (www.nature.com/nature/journal/v473/n7346/full/nature09944.html) that show there are three distinct ecosystems in the guts of people scientists have studied. Like blood types, it does not really matter what part of the globe you live in, what your ethnicity is, there are 3 distinct “enterotypes.”
    I suspect/hope that this area of study will open up in the relatively near future. That could mean that specific probiotic supplements designed for each of the three enterotypes could become available for people to rebuild their gut environment so that it functions the way it’s supposed to, i.e. help with digestion, manufacture vitamins, as part of the immune system, for preventing growth of harmful, pathogenic bacteria, and for producing hormones to direct the host (you, in a symbiotic relationship to the probiotics) to store fats. Some of “antis” have been implicated in producing infection or increasing the cancer risk of the person.

  • Shari says:

    Besides taking probiotic supplements, also add fermented foods to your diet: Kefir and cultured veggies like sauerkraut, Kimchi, etc. Check out “The Body Ecology Diet” website and book for good info. on fermented foods.

  • Cam Schmam says:

    This sounds terrible. Except that we as a species continue to increase our life span. People freak out about the evils of anti-biotics, the western diet, vaccines, etc. You can do with out them and go back to your old fashioned diets. I prefer to live longer and healthier.

  • Alys says:

    Kefir is easy to make at home and contains 30-35 beneficial strands of bacteria and 20-27 beneficial yeasts. If taken regularly they will colonize in your gut and rebuild your whole system. read about it on the net by Googling Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride. She has a clinic in England that consistently produces outstanding results It is easy to find free Kefir grains to start just look, You can also buy them if you wish.

  • congel says:

    I read an article in the NY Times about a woman who was deathly ill from a form of colitis resulting from antibiotic use. After exhausting all other conventional treatments she found a Dr. who did a so called “fecal transplant” from her husband’s colon to hers. This cured her. Calling this a transplant makes it sound like a complex expensive procedure. However, it basically involved inserting a piece of feces from her husband up into the woman’s rectum. It doesn’t seem like it should even require an M.D. Sometimes the most difficult problems have the simplist solutions.

  • Mark Volovar says:

    You mean asthma and diabetes aren’t caused by ‘second hand smoke’
    50 years ago, 66% of adults in the USA smoked, and childhood asthma and diabetes were almost non-existant.

    You may have found the ‘smoking gun’

    Actually, ‘second hand smoke’ is a fraud promoted by HARMaceutical companies to sell their ineffective or dangerous smoking cessation products.

    My favorite bowel flora is Nature’s Biotic. Beside acidophillus and bifidus strains, it also contains b.subtilus and b.lichenformis.

  • Linda says:

    While I certainly agree with the author’s indictment of the downside risk of antibiotic use, and appreciate and agree with all of the very helpful comments in terms of replacing gut flora, since non-pharmaceutical antibiotics including MMS, Grapefruit Seed Extract, Oil of Oregano, Colloidal Silver and on and on are also antibiotics and are not somehow specially programmed to only kill off the “bad” bugs because they are not made by a pharmaceutical company, that they too wipe out our healthy flora. While there is merit to using natural products and they are likely less toxic (and less potent) in many ways, I would appreciate hearing about any studies that have been conducted to demonstrate how these products are not at all harmful to our gut flora or have any affect on the gut terrain that is at all different from their pharmaceutical counterparts. I personally have developed “yeast infections” while using them and we are all wise to take probiotics in conjunction with the natural antibiotics as well. If anyone has any evidence that there is less altering of gut beneficial bacteria by choosing these natural options please provide links to the information out there.

    Also I would appreciate links to the studies that have concluded there is long term and multigenerational affects of killing off healthy gut flora. Makes sense actually…would just like to see the references and how the study was conducted along with the specific conclusions. Many thanks!

  • Linda Rivera says:

    The problem is we trusted the doctors who prescribed us meds. What a mistake! At age 20 I was prescribed antibiotics every day for months for acne! I didn’t know then that antibiotics were a dreadful assault on the human body.

    Also, American children are given more vaccinations than any other country on earth – NOT to protect the children but to make utterly ruthless big pharma even wealthier. I read one country stopped giving vaccinations to children under two years of age and the death rate for children went down dramatically.

    It is a tragedy that children and people are looked upon as dollar signs-to be exploited to the max-their health destroyed by selfish, greedy big pharma and their allies in government.

  • Linda Rivera says:

    To Miranda Paymer

    On the gaps diet is it ok to eat beans, lentils and peas?

    I have hypothyroid symptoms which have worsened over the years but the tests showed my thyroid was normal. I am careful about what I eat and tried to lose weight for years without success. I have severe fatigue and other problems.

    So glad your husband got better!

  • momma bear says:

    Alternatives to antibiotics are MMS that is sold on this site and micro-particle colloidal silver and I think the best place to get a good (non home made) generator along with TONS of scientifically based information is http://www.thesilveredge.com and I get NO financial kickback for making this recommendation. Besides over use of antibiotics, there are the poisons from vaccines that are destroying our immune systems, which gut health is a KEY source, as well as our dietary lifestyles lacking in numerous properly prepared live and cultured products that our ancestors thrived on for eons. “convenience” is killing us generation by generation.

  • Skeerew thegovt says:

    Cam Schmam – you’re a colossal idiot. While it is true we continue to live longer, we also must face the damage anti biotics cause. Yes people live longer, but as frail, damaged and prescription drug addled shells of their former selves. We also must face the issues of being drug storage containers for big pharma and expose the lies the they force on us daily. And ignore the lies about what constitutes a “healthy diet” as rammed down our throats by the medical establishment and the govt.

  • Don Diego says:

    This article fails to address the replenishing of micro biota flora via macrobiotic diet and supplements.

    Most health food stores carry live refrigerated micro biota in enteric capsules. Some macrobiotic brands carry over 20 species of live encapsulated capsules that are designed to withstand stomach
    acids and dissolve in the intestines where they will flourish.

    So if your garden has been destroyed by modern pharmacopeia, simply replant and harvest will be bountiful within no time.

    Yogurt ,at most , carries up to three live cultures. Three cultures won’t suffice.

    Replenish with macrobiotic supplementation.

  • mothman777 says:

    SBO’s, or Soil-Based Organisms, offer a huge range of microorganisms to replace missing gut bacteria. Also, these organisms are naturally present in freshly-drawn well or spring water that is not chlorinated or otherwise sterilised, and they will massively boost your resistance to cancer and pathogenic diseases. Raw milk contains colostrum, which is a natural immune booster that has been employed in India for the treatment of leukaemia, though colostrum is destroyed by pasteurisation or any other heating. In desert campaigns in the second world war, many thousands of German soldiers were lost due to dysentery, when keeen observers noticed the native inhabitants did not suffer a similar fate. This they achieved by swallowing a small portion of fresh camel droppings, rich with natural gut bacteria (80% of our immune system is based on the microflora in our gut). The organisms responsible for this beneficial effect were then isolated and then administered to the German troops and there were no further fatalities from dysentery. Phage medicine is used in Russia too, where they have discovered that a germ exists in nature to kill any other germ, so hospital waste from patients is analysed and all microoganisms isolated are then cultured and then tested for their ability to overcome pathogenic organisms. So, in Russia, patients are consulted on whether or not they want vaccines and antibiotics, or whether they would instead prefer nature’s own predators to take care of the problem. Natural organisms exist to overcome virtually every known disease, for instance, poliomyelitis, diphtheria etc. The best way to avoid pathogenic disease is to understand the essential pleomorphic nature of all microorganisms. Each virus can change into a germ, then a fungus, or mould, then a cancer; this being verifiable using live blood specimens under a dark field microscope. These organisms are not bad in themselves, so the concept of the necessity of a ‘clean’ bodily system is erroneous; all organisms start off the same way as beneficial to the system, but when an acidic and oxygen and mineral deficient bodily environment starts to predominate, then ‘friendly’ bacteria mutate into ‘hostile’ ones, to begin the process of breaking down the bodily tissues back into the soil to be recycled and taken on by other souls as their external bodies. This is not a hostile process at all in fact; as the signal is being given by lack of maintenance of bodily health by the individual that the body is dying and no longer required, and simply needs to be broken down to be used by someone else. I have manufactured ‘colloidal’ (more properly termed ionic) silver using 99.999% pure silver in single distilled water using 27 volts DC with an AC/DC converter for constant voltage to obtain reproducable quality, at a constant temperature using a non-reactive glass beaker in an external water bath at a constant temperature of 32 degrees C using a Techne lab temperature controller, in complete darkness, for 70 minutes with an array of electrodes cut from two metres of 2mm silver wire and then submitting various samples to a university lab to ascertain exact ionic properties in the water, and after using large quantities of that, I did get a sterile gut, so colloidal silver sols should be used with extreme caution. They are great for treating wounds and burns, and leukaemia blood cancer cells have been 98% eradicated in 24 hours using intravenous sol silver in validated medical tests, so it does have a lot of promise, but not for gut flora though. Use SBO’s from some manufacturer or get them naturally from freshly drawn spring water.

  • Norman says:

    I had an unusual gut disease of unknown origin. It came on hard and fast one evening and lasted about 3 years. I couldn’t metabolise nutrients and had to eat a lot and craved high caloric foods to try to get some kind of nutrition.

    I took an intestine lining only anti biotic and it worked, however the process back to regularity took at least another 2 years. What I learned is that gut processes are very slow, like trees. The anti biotic was the only help to make it go away. To restore my system I’ve had a lot yogurt and kafir to restore my system and continue with at least 4 oz. everyday and it works, it just takes years.

    Now I eat less because I can metabolize the nutrients and lost all cravings for high caloric foods. The length of time for recovery is the lesson in the world of our digestive systems. So if you’re having trouble I highly recomend adding pro-biotics to your diet.

  • Nick says:

    There is a much better way to deal with bacterial infections. Phages are the natural enemies of bacteria and essentially they eat them. Bacteriophages are much more specific than antibiotics, so they can be chosen to attack a specific bad bacteria, yet not harm any of the good ones. Thus the Flora of the individual is not damaged and there is no problem with bacteria developing resistance, as with antibiotics. The Soviet Union has been using and developing this treatment for 90 years and it is time we here in the Western World caught up. Big Pharma is all about drugs and we need to extricate ourselves from their expensive self-serving system. Medical systems all over the Western World are
    facing financial hardship because of the high cost of pharmaceutical products. Phages are the natural and simple method of treatment that have no bad side effects.

  • Brian Barnett says:

    When I was dental student in London nearly forty years ago, the debate was starting as to the long term effects of the overuse of anti-biotics. This was especially serious with the use in food animals. One professor said that he expected there to be antibiotic resistant strains to emerge that would be a very serious problem. Also he mentioned that there is no good way to sterilize a hospital-that surfaces could always be cultured. He then said that the only sure way to aterilize a hospital would be to burn it down every eight years. The infection rate was much lower in a dental office compared to that in a hospital. With the very serious strains that exist now, especially the MERSA ones-the answer is not to just hope to create new anti-biotics in time to be effective until their resistance develops. The use in the food supply must stop as well as the overprescription- which is still rampant.

  • mothman777 says:

    I forgot to add, when making silver sol,I use 2 litres of water each time in the beaker with 12 electrodes cut from 2 metres of 2mm wire. You can obtain 99.999% pure silver from Alfa Aesar in Germany(a division of Matthey Johnson). Also, you can ask a lab oven manufacturer to adapt an oven for you by drilling holes in it to allow the wires from the electrodes to the power source outside the oven, rather than placing the beaker in a bath of water, as this can be a little time consuming (I use a glass fish tank, enclosed in a wooden case to make it light proof which I then place in a dark room completely blacked out, if you don’t do this the ions will turn black and bottom out.

  • Roger H. says:

    My wife and I think raw-milk Colostrum is the best source of gut-flora, to restore the gut after one has had antibiotics, most pharmaceuticals, or many OTC items. Consider that a calf is born with NO immunities. It MUST get colostrum from its mother during the first two days or it will probably die from some bacteria which it contacts in the wild. You might contact a dairy farmer and offer him a high price for some of the first day milking (colostrum). He usually throws it away, except for some which is used for his replacement milking cows. Most of it is thrown out. It is so rich in anti-pathogens, microbes, and good flora that it is nearly brown in color. We drink it straight, just like any glass of milk. It tastes like a rich milk. We think it best to drink a small amount each day for a few days, probably best with a full meal so the stomach acid won’t kill all those good organisms. You can freeze it in ice cube trays and thaw a couple each day. A half-cup per day would be good. But, be aware, the government is strongly opposed to raw milk; it is a health supplement, you know. BTW, we NEVER drink commercial milk; nobody should!!! That is BAD stuff, but that’s another story. On the other hand, Raw Milk might be one of the most beneficial foods you can get. You’ve got to take responsibility for yourself, or the government will.

  • jintampa says:

    thanks to all of you for your helpful tips. i personally almost croaked
    from sulfa antibiotics that were prescribed for a chronic sinus infection and was hospitalized for several days. i haven’t taken antibioticss in many years. i try to maintain a pretty strict diet with organic and free range food.

  • Chris K. says:

    the above post by jintampa reminded me how many “chronic sinus infections” are really undiagnosed dairy allegies, meaning all these people aren’t even diagnosed properly. In infancy it surfaces as gas or worse things, they outgrow it and it ususally becomes “chronic ear infections” until adolescence. Then it becomes acne and sinus infections. I know, my chronic bronchitis was undiagnosed dairy allergy. If you live in a state where raw milk is legal, you can purchase and drink that. The protein in milk that people are allergic to is not natural to milk and is exclusive to pasturized milk only. A scam to keep the masses sick – outlaw raw milk and keep people drinking pasturized “milk”. BTW, fat free and low fat milk have almost no nutitional value, everything is lost during the process to eliminate fat then it’s “enriched” w/ vitamins. Ask lab rats how long a body can exist on “enriched” foods….candida and cancer don’t take all that long.

  • tara says:

    i use pure oregano oil in capsules(gia herbs) for bacterial infections, if serious i take 2 or 3 caps every two hours until symptoms subside then 2 caps 3/4 times a day. works for a toothache.
    goldenseal capules are also a good natural antibiotic. clove and frankinscence oils work well on viruses. i use an eyedropper to put oil in a 00 capsule. eat alittle 10 mins ater taking. everyone needs to have a holistic health practioner! preferable one who uses kinesiology or some other method (there are a few) of asking your body what it needs. often we get discouraged with supplements because what works in one persons body may not work in anothers. muscle-testing and self-muscle-testing is easy to learn if your reasonably healthy. get evaluated by a health practitioner before your symptoms get serious. alittle money spent now may save your health later.
    one more thing every one who has taken anti-biotics and as this article points out our children also need to take a good probiotic twice daily.
    this replaces the healthy bacteria inh the intestines. very important for
    immune system. okay good luck stay healthy. oh my pet peeve avoid products with partially hydrogenated oils like your life depends on it…it does.

Leave a comment!

Add your comment below, or trackback from your own site. You can also subscribe to these comments via RSS.

Be nice. Keep it clean. Stay on topic. No spam.

You can use these tags:
<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>

This is a Gravatar-enabled weblog. To get your own globally-recognized-avatar, please register at Gravatar.